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Pain-Related Fear-Dissociable Neural Sources

By |January 15, 2019|Fear Avoidance, Outcome Assessment, Pain Management|

Pain-Related Fear-Dissociable Neural Sources of Different Fear Constructs

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   eNeuro. 2019 (Jan 3);   5 (6) pii: ENEURO.0107-18.2018

Michael Lukas Meier, Andrea Vrana, Barry Kim Humphreys, Erich Seifritz, Philipp Stämpfli, and Petra Schweinhardt

Integrative Spinal Research,
Department of Chiropractic Medicine,
Balgrist University Hospital,
8008 Zurich, Switzerland.

Fear of pain demonstrates significant prognostic value regarding the development of persistent musculoskeletal pain and disability. Its assessment often relies on self-report measures of pain-related fear by a variety of questionnaires. However, based either on “fear of movement/(re)injury/kinesiophobia,” “fear avoidance beliefs,” or “pain anxiety,” pain-related fear constructs plausibly differ while it is unclear how specific the questionnaires are in assessing these different constructs. Furthermore, the relationship of pain-related fear to other anxiety measures such as state or trait anxiety remains ambiguous. Advances in neuroimaging such as machine learning on brain activity patterns recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging might help to dissect commonalities or differences across pain-related fear constructs. We applied a pattern regression approach in 20 human patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain to reveal predictive relationships between fear-related neural pattern information and different pain-related fear questionnaires.

More specifically, the applied multiple kernel learning approach allowed the generation of models to predict the questionnaire scores based on a hierarchical ranking of fear-related neural patterns induced by viewing videos of activities potentially harmful for the back. We sought to find evidence for or against overlapping pain-related fear constructs by comparing the questionnaire prediction models according to their predictive abilities and associated neural contributors. By demonstrating evidence of nonoverlapping neural predictors within fear-processing regions, the results underpin the diversity of pain-related fear constructs. This neuroscientific approach might ultimately help to further understand and dissect psychological pain-related fear constructs.

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Evidence-Based Nonpharmacologic Strategies

By |May 27, 2018|Clinical Guidelines, Pain Management|

Evidence-Based Nonpharmacologic Strategies for Comprehensive Pain Care: The Consortium Pain Task Force White Paper

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Explore (NY). 2018 (Mar 1) [Epub]

Heather Tick, MD, Arya Nielsen, PhD, Kenneth R. Pelletier, PhD, MD, Robert Bonakdar, MD, Samantha Simmons, MPH, Ronald Glick, MD, Emily Ratner, MD, Russell L. Lemmon, MD, Peter Wayne, PhD, Veronica Zador, BSc

Departments of Family Medicine,
Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine,
University of Washington School of Medicine,
Seattle, WA.

Medical pain management is in crisis; from the pervasiveness of pain to inadequate pain treatment, from the escalation of prescription opioids to an epidemic in addiction, diversion and overdose deaths. The rising costs of pain care and managing adverse effects of that care have prompted action from state and federal agencies including the

Department of Defense (DOD,
Veterans Health Administration (VHA),
National Institutes of Health (NIH),
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

There is pressure for pain medicine to shift away from reliance on opioids, ineffective procedures and surgeries toward comprehensive pain management that includes evidence-based nonpharmacologic options. This White Paper details the historical context and magnitude of the current pain problem including individual, social and economic impacts as well as the challenges of pain management for patients and a healthcare workforce engaging prevalent strategies not entirely based in current evidence. Detailed here is the evidence-base for nonpharmacologic therapies effective in postsurgical pain with opioid sparing, acute non-surgical pain, cancer pain and chronic pain.

Therapies reviewed include

acupuncture therapy,
massage therapy,
osteopathic and chiropractic manipulation,
meditative movement therapies Tai chi and yoga,
mind body behavioral interventions,
dietary components and
self-care/self-efficacy strategies.

Transforming the system of pain care to a responsive comprehensive model necessitates that options for treatment and collaborative care must be evidence-based and include effective nonpharmacologic strategies that have the advantage of reduced risks of adverse events and addiction liability.

The evidence demands a call to action to increase awareness of effective nonpharmacologic treatments for pain, to train healthcare practitioners and administrators in the evidence base of effective nonpharmacologic practice, to advocate for policy initiatives that remedy system and reimbursement barriers to evidence-informed comprehensive pain care, and to promote ongoing research and dissemination of the role of effective nonpharmacologic treatments in pain, focused on the short- and long-term therapeutic and economic impact of comprehensive care practices.

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Low Back Pain Page
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Spinal Manipulative Therapy-specific Changes

By |May 26, 2018|Pain Management|

Spinal Manipulative Therapy-specific Changes in Pain Sensitivity in Individuals with Low Back Pain

The Chiro.Org Blog


SOURCE:   Journal of Pain 2014 (Feb); 15 (2): 136–148

Joel E Bialosky, PT, PhD, Steven Z George, PT, PhD, Maggie E Horn, Donald D Price, PhD, Roland Staud, MD, and Michael E Robinson, PhD

Department of Physical Therapy,
Center for Pain Research
and Behavioral Health,
University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida.

Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is effective for some individuals experiencing low back pain; however, the mechanisms are not established regarding the role of placebo. SMT is associated with changes in pain sensitivity, suggesting related altered central nervous system response or processing of afferent nociceptive input. Placebo is also associated with changes in pain sensitivity, and the efficacy of SMT for changes in pain sensitivity beyond placebo has not been adequately considered. We randomly assigned 110 participants with low back pain to receive SMT, placebo SMT, placebo SMT with the instructional set “The manual therapy technique you will receive has been shown to significantly reduce low back pain in some people,” or no intervention.

Participants receiving the SMT and placebo SMT received their assigned intervention 6 times over 2 weeks. Pain sensitivity was assessed prior to and immediately following the assigned intervention during the first session. Clinical outcomes were assessed at baseline and following 2 weeks of participation in the study. Immediate attenuation of suprathreshold heat response was greatest following SMT (P = .05, partial η2 = .07). Group-dependent differences were not observed for changes in pain intensity and disability at 2 weeks. Participant satisfaction was greatest following the enhanced placebo SMT.

This study was registered at under the identifier NCT01168999.

PERSPECTIVE:   The results of this study indicate attenuation of pain sensitivity is greater in response to SMT than the expectation of receiving an SMT. These findings suggest a potential mechanism of SMT related to lessening of central sensitization and may indicate a preclinical effect beyond the expectations of receiving SMT.

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Manual Therapy and Exercise for Neck Pain

By |March 14, 2018|Exercise and Chiropractic, Pain Management|

Manual Therapy and Exercise for Neck Pain: A Systematic Review

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Man Ther. 2010 (Aug); 15 (4): 334–354

Jordan Miller, Anita Gross, Jonathan D’Sylva, Stephen J. Burnie, Charles H. Goldsmith, Nadine Graham, Ted Haines, Gert Brønfort, Jan L. Hoving

School of Rehabilitation Science,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, Canada

Manual therapy is often used with exercise to treat neck pain. This cervical overview group systematic review update assesses if manual therapy, including manipulation or mobilisation, combined with exercise improves pain, function/disability, quality of life, global perceived effect, and patient satisfaction for adults with neck pain with or without cervicogenic headache or radiculopathy.

Computerized searches were performed to July 2009. Two or more authors independently selected studies, abstracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Pooled relative risk (pRR) and standardized mean differences (pSMD) were calculated. Of 17 randomized controlled trials included, 29% had a low risk of bias.

Low quality evidence suggests clinically important long-term improvements in pain (pSMD-0.87(95% CI: -1.69, -0.06)), function/disability, and global perceived effect when manual therapy and exercise are compared to no treatment.

High quality evidence suggests greater short-term pain relief [pSMD-0.50(95% CI: -0.76, -0.24)] than exercise alone, but no long-term differences across multiple outcomes for (sub)acute/chronic neck pain with or without cervicogenic headache.

Moderate quality evidence supports this treatment combination for pain reduction and improved quality of life over manual therapy alone for chronic neck pain; and suggests greater short-term pain reduction when compared to traditional care for acute whiplash.

Evidence regarding radiculopathy was sparse. Specific research recommendations are made.

From the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) review

CRD summary

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