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Chiropractic Technique

Joint Manipulation: Toward a General Theory

By |May 14, 2017|Chiropractic Technique|

Joint Manipulation: Toward a General Theory of High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Thrust Techniques

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   J Chiropractic Humanities 2017 (Mar); 20 (1): 1–9

Andrew S. Harwich, D.O.

The Bridge House Practice,
154 Caledonian Road,
Kings Cross, London, UK, N1 9RD

Objective   The objective of this study was to describe the initial stage of a generalized theory of high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust (HVLAT) techniques for joint manipulation.

Methods   This study examined the movements described by authors from the fields of osteopathy, chiropractic, and physical therapy to produce joint cavitation in both the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and the cervical spine apophysial joint. This study qualitatively compared the kinetics, the similarities, and the differences between MCP cavitation and cervical facet joint cavitation. A qualitative vector analysis of forces and movements was undertaken by constructing computer-generated, simplified graphical models of the MCP joint and a typical cervical apophysial joint and imposing the motions dictated by the clinical technique.

Results   Comparing the path to cavitation of 2 modes of HVLAT for the MCP joint, namely, distraction and hyperflexion, it was found that the hyperflexion method requires an axis of rotation, the hinge axis, which is also required for cervical HVLAT. These results show that there is an analogue of cervical HVLAT in one of the MCP joint HVLATs.

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Sports Management: Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

By |April 23, 2013|Chiropractic Care, Chiropractic Education, Chiropractic Technique, Clinical Decision-making, Education, Gait Analysis, Rehabilitation, Sports Management|

Sports Management: Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The Chiro.Org Blog

We would all like to thank Dr. Richard C. Schafer, DC, PhD, FICC for his lifetime commitment to the profession. In the future we will continue to add materials from RC’s copyrighted books for your use.

This is Chapter 27 from RC’s best-selling book:

“Chiropractic Management of Sports and Recreational Injuries”

Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

These materials are provided as a service to our profession. There is no charge for individuals to copy and file these materials. However, they cannot be sold or used in any group or commercial venture without written permission from ACAPress.

Chapter 27:   Leg, Ankle, and Foot Injuries

The lower leg, ankle, and foot work as a functional unit. Total body weight above is transmitted to the leg, ankle hinge, and foot in the upright position, and this force is greatly multiplied in locomotion. Thus the ankle and foot are uniquely affected by trauma and static deformities infrequently seen in other areas of the body.

Injuries of the Leg

The most common injuries in this area are bruises, muscle strains, tendon lesions, postural stress, anterior and posterior compression syndromes, and tibia and fibula fractures. Bruises of the lower leg are less frequent than those of the thigh or knee, but the incidence of intrinsic strain, sprain, and stress fractures are much greater.

A continual program of running and jogging is typical of most sports. The result is often strengthening of the antigravity muscles at the expense of the gravity muscles — producing a dynamic imbalance unless both gravity and antigravity muscles are developed simultaneously. An anatomic or physiologic short leg as little as an eighth of an inch can affect a stride and produce an overstrain in long-distance track events.

Bruises and Contusions

The most common bruise of the lower extremity is that of the shin where disability may be great as the poorly protected tibial periosteum is usually involved. Skin splits in this area can be most difficult to heal. Signs of suppuration indicate referral to guard against periostitis and osteomyelitis.

Management.   Treat as any skin-bone bruise with cold packs and antibacterial procedures, and shield the area with padding during competitive activity. When long socks are worn, the incidence of shinbone injuries is reduced. An old but effective protective method in professional football that does not add weight is to place four or five sheets of slick magazine pages around the shin that are secured by a cotton sock which is covered by the conventional sock. A blow to the shin is reduced to about a third of its force as the paper slips laterally on impact.


This is a common and most debilitating injury in contact sports. It is characterized by severe calf tenderness, abnormal muscle firmness of the engorged muscle, and inability to raise the heel during weight bearing.

Management.   Treat with cold packs, compression, and elevation for 24 hr. Follow with mild heat and contrast baths. Massage is contraindicated as it might disturb muscle repair. The danger of ossification is less in the calf than in the thigh, but management must incorporate precautions against adhesions.


Contusion to the greater saphenous vein may lead to rupture resulting in extensive swelling, ecchymosis, redness and other signs of local phlebitis. Tenderness will be found along the course of the vascular channel. During treatment, referral should be made upon the first signs of thrombosis.

Management.   Management is by rest, cold, compression, and elevation for at least 24 hr. Later, progressive ambulation, mild heat, and contrast baths should be utilized. Progressive exercises may begin in 4-6 days. When competitive activity is resumed, the area should be provided extra protection.


Pediatric News

By |October 8, 2011|Chiropractic Technique, Pediatrics|

Pediatric News

The Chiro.Org Blog

The second edition of Dr. Claudia Anrig’s wonderful textbook “Pediatric Chiropractic” will be available in early November. Pre-order a copy at a discount price on our Amazon Associate page and Amazon will tithe 4% of the proceeds back to chiropractic research.

With its academic and clinical approach, the second edition of Pediatric Chiropractic provides the Family Wellness Chiropractor the tools they need to adjust infants, children and pregnant women with confidence. Through the cooperation of over 40 international experts, this new edition adds several techniques including SOT, Thompson, Logan, Upper Cervical, Craniosacral, instrument assisted adjusting and remains the leading resource for the Gonstead technique as a method for adjusting children and pregnant women. (more…)

Why Chiropractic Care Reduces Blood Pressure

By |July 17, 2011|Blood Pressure, Chiropractic Technique|

Why Chiropractic Care Reduces Blood Pressure

The Chiro.Org Blog

Several news stories reported on a study performed at the University of Leeds in England, and published in the August 1, 2007 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience [1], that showed links between neck muscles and the brain and that this link plays a crucial role in controlling blood pressure.

One report by UPI on August 2, 2007 starts off by stating:

A University of Leeds chance discovery in a British laboratory shows why a chiropractic adjustment for a pain in the neck may do wonders for blood pressure.

This article quotes study leader Professor Jim Deuchars, who notes that his finding found pathways between the neck and the brain and shows how the neck muscles could play an important role in controlling blood pressure, and why chiropractic care works so well with blood pressure.

He states, “By identifying the pathways we can see why these treatments might work and it could also explain why some people suffering whiplash injuries may experience a change in their blood pressure.”

As he mentions in the article, Professor Deuchars notes that the Leeds study further corroborates the work done at the Hypertension Center at the University of Chicago Medical Center and published in the March 2, 2007 issue of the Journal of Human Hypertension. In that previous study 25 people in the study group receiving the chiropractic adjustments all showed a significant reduction in blood pressure compared with groups in the study that did not get chiropractic adjustments. (more…)

Chiropractic Technique Review: Pierce Results System

By |July 10, 2011|Chiropractic Technique|

Chiropractic Technique Review: Pierce Results System

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   Chiro.Org’s Technique Page

The Chiropractic Technique, known as the Pierce Results System, (formerly known as Pierce/Stillwagon, or PST) was developed by Vernon Pierce, D.C., Sr. It is a biomechanical analysis of spine kinematics (or spinal motion), utilizing “stress views” of the spine (flexion, extension, rotation, and/or lateral bending views where required) or videofluoroscopy (VF, or “moving x-ray” studies) to determine the loss of spinal function, which is at the core of the “vertebral subluxation complex”.

Structure and Function

Our spine is a “structural” unit. There are 4 curves to the spine. Loss of structural integrity and/or normal function of the spine is the basis for the evolution of the vertebral subluxation. Abnormal stresses occur in the facets, discs and supporting tissues when normal motion of the spine is impaired. The Pierce System analysis is aimed at locating the specific segments which are subluxated, as well as providing the means to “free” those segments.

When normal function returns, the neurologic and other components of the subluxation complex resolve by the normal healing power referred to historically as “innate intelligence” or “vis medicatrix naturae” (the healing power of Nature).

  Neutral Lateral Film Analysis:


The picture on the left is an example of perfect cervical lordosis. All segments should be on Georges’s line (one curved line). There should be an even spacing between each spinous process. Positioning of the head and spine should also be assessed for anterior head placement (also known as Forward Head Posture). The normal cervical lordosis (which extends from C1 to T2) should have a 17-24 cm. radius, based on the patient’s height. This is easily measured with the AcuArc ruler. The posterior arch of Atlas should be centered in the space between occiput and the C2 spinous process. If C1’s posterior arch “crowds” occiput, it is labelled as an “inferior” Atlas. If it crowds C2, it is labelled “superior”. The normal Atlas Plane line would be 18-24 degrees superior to the bottom of the film. A line under the bottom of the C2 body (Whitehorn’s line) should be parallel with the floor.

  Flexion Film Analysis:


Chiropractic Techniques

By |July 6, 2011|Chiropractic Education, Chiropractic Technique|

Chiropractic Techniques

The Chiro.Org Blog

SOURCE:   The Job Analysis of Chiropractic

The following list contains the 15 techniques most frequently used by doctors of chiropractic (DCs).

Although this list is dated, it still accurately reflects the most commonly-used techniques.

The most recent reviews suggest that Instrument Adjusting use is even more common (~46% vs. 34.5%).

These statistics are from the Job Analysis of Chiropractic, created by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners in January 2000.

Just below the following Table, you will find a brief explanation of each of these manipulative/adjustive procedure.

Every chiropractic college teaches one or more of the following techniques. Most of the rest of them may be offered as Elective Classes, which can be taken by students during their normal 15-week trimester, under the direct supervision of Technique Instructors.

Chiropractic graduates undergo a National Board examination that requires the student to demonstrate competency in the top five manipulative/ adjustive techniques, plus the techniques taught at his/her chiropractic college.

Most Frequently Used Techniques:

% of DC Use
1. Diversified
2. Extremity manipulating/adjusting
3. Activator Methods
4. Gonstead
5. Cox Flexion/Distraction
6. Thompson Technique
7. Sacro Occipital Technique
8. Applied Kinesiology
9. NIMMO/Receptor Tonus
10. Cranial
11. Adjustive Instruments
12. Palmer Upper Cervical
13. Logan Basic
14. Meric
15. Pierce-Stillwagon